Basic Components of a Desktop Computer

Basic Parts of a Desktop Computer

  1. Computer Casing.
  2. Motherboard.
  3. Hard drive
  4. CPU.
  5. Display Monitor.
  6. Keyboard.
  7. Mouse

Computer Case

It’s also referred to as computer chassis or CPU or Tower, and it houses almost all the parts of a desktop PC except Keyboard, Mouse, and Monitor.

It is constructed from various materials and the common ones include Plastic, aluminum, steel, or glass. Its available in different sizes depending on the motherboard size since its the largest component in size.

Desktop Computer


This is the main system board or PCB and it provides connections to all the other components of a computer. It’s the most important and crucial component consisting of CPU, RAM slots, Connectors, ROM chip, power connector, and many more.

Hard drive

This is simply an electromechanical data storage device that uses rotating disks for storing and transfer of digital information and the latest SSD that uses a Nand based flash memory. Hard drives are grouped in four different categories, SATA, PATA, SCSI, and SSD.


It’s considered as the brain of the PC because all data processing is performed here. It also stores data, instructions, and programs. It consists of storage, ALU, and a control unit. The CPU manages and controls all the components of a PC.

Display Monitor

This is the output device that displays video and graphical information generated by the graphics adapter. It uses different technologies including CRT, LED, LCD, VCR, and plasma. Also known as the computer screen or simply monitor. It allows easy interaction by the use of keyboard and mouse.


It is an input device connected to the computer to provide data and signals to CPU and has function keys and buttons arranged to provide electronic signals and commands.


This is also an input and hand-held pointing device. It controls the motion of the pointer in a graphical user interface. It performs the following functions:

  • move the cursor
  • drag and drop
  • scroll
  • select
  • execute programs

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